Monday, March 21, 2011

Installing Fonts in the Gnome Desktop [The Easy Way]

I found the information on how to do this at The reason I am duplicating it here is because if I don't, with my luck, the website will disappear and we will all be lost forever!

Here we go (if you click the link above, the article is actually longer, but I took the part that actually does the job and pasted it here):

Adding fonts in GNOME

Saturday, July 25th, 2009

  1. Go to your home folder
  2. Enable “Show Hidden Files” option from Nautilus View menu
  3. Then create new folder with name “.fonts” (with dot in front)
  4. Now in new folder copy all your true type fonts
  5. Now restart and new fonts will be in use.
By the way, this is Linux! You don’t have to restart just run`sudo fc-cache -f -v` in a terminal. But you probably already knew that. Easy isn’t it?

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Cisco IOS Commands to Know (and other stuff)

Random Commands
router# show ip int bri      // show ip interfaces (brief version)
router# era sta              // "erase startup" configuration
router# show ver             // "show version" of operating system, etc

Assign IP Address:
router# int fa0/0
router# ip address
router# no shutdown          // enable interface

Run a command from any IOS level:
router# do show ip int bri   // the magic command is "do"

Write Router Commands
// copy running-config (in RAM) to the startup-config (in NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM) so it works after reboot or crash
Router# copy running-config startup-config    // (copy run start)
router# write                // "wr" for short

Backup Router running-config to TFTP server:
router# copy run tftp        // copy "what" "where"
// all you need to know is the IP address

Erase Configuration to load new configuration:
router# erase startup

Restore NVRAM after erase startup:
router# reload

Restore Router running-config from TFTP server:
// first you must reconfigure the IP address for the router
router# copy tftp run        // copy "where" "what"

Erase Operating System from Router
router# copy flash tftp      // backup OS
// enter the filename of the OS (usually *.bin)

Restore OS to Router
router# copy tftp flash      // will be the same *.bin that you backed up

Monday, March 14, 2011

7 Steps to Router Heaven

1. Name your router:
router> enable // (ena) enable the router
router# configure terminal // (config t) go into configuration mode
router(config)# hostname B1 // assign hostname to router
B1(config)# no hostname // remove hostname from router

2. Enable passwords:
// Enable password for Console 0
B1(config-line)# line con 0 // tell it you're configuring console 0
B1(config-line)# password cisco // assign the password to console 0
B1(config-line)# login // set password
B1(config-line)# no logging synchronous // (no logging sync) Do not log error messages

// Enable password for Telnet (sessions 0 through 5)
B1(config-line)# line vty 0 5 // 0 5 == virtual terminals 0 through 5
B1(config-line)# password cisco // assign password to vty 0-5
B1(config-line)# login // set password
B1(config-line)# exit // get out of password set

B1(config)# enable password cisco // enables normal login password
B1(config)# enable secret cisco // enables encrypted password (never other passwords!)

3. Configure Network Interfaces
B1(config)# interface s0/0 // (int s0/0) configure interface serial fa0/0
B1(config-if)# ip address // (ip add) give IP address
B1(config-if)# no shutdown // (no shut) turn on the interface
B1(config-if)# clock rate 500000 // set clock rate for DCE interface

4. Description of Interfaces
B1(config-if)# description fa0/0 Lan Building 1 Connection   // describe interface fa0/0
B1(config-if)# exit // exit the config-if and back to config

5. Message of the Day
B1(config)# banner motd #Unlawful Use of this Router will get you TERMINATED!!!!!# // warns you that you're trying to login

B1(config)# banner login #You are logged into this router now!#  // tells you that you're logged in

6. Turn on/off services/daemons
B1(config)# no ip domain-lookup // turn off domain lookup service (DNS)
B1(config)# ip host B1  // add routes to the host table
B1(config)# exit

7. Test the router from another router!!!
B2# ping B1 // ping the router
B2# telnet // telnet into the router

Other useful tips:
B1# ? // gives you list of available commands
B1# banner ? // gives you list of commands to use with banner

Saturday, March 12, 2011

How fast is the internet?

Did you all know that a bit can travel approximately 2,118.33 miles in one second on a 1 Gbps network? That's 8" per nanosecond (10,000,000,000th of a second or 10^-9 seconds). 8^9 is the amount of inches in 2,118.33 miles.

An ethernet speed of 1 Gbps is equal to one bit time (1 nanosecond (ns)). 

At 10 Mbps, bit time is 100. It is 10 at 100 Mbps, and .1 at 10 Gbps. 

That means that on a 10 Gbps network, a bit could travel 21,183.3 miles in one second.

 (None of this applies if I did the math wrong...)